Osteochondrosis is a disease in which, as a result of degenerative processes, the structure of the joints and intervertebral discs is disrupted, which leads to compression of the spinal root.Inflammation processes lead to severe pain; with long-term disease, the function of internal organs may be impaired.Metabolic disorder in intervertebral discs is very painful, so it is so important to know all about osteochondrosis: what it is, and also how to treat osteochondrosis of the spine.
The essence of osteochondrosis
To understand the essence of the treatment of diseases of the spine, you need to know what osteochondrosis is. At the heart of the disease is a violation of the trophism of the vertebrae, intervertebral discs.Intervertebral osteochondrosis leads to a change in the correct structure of all tissues, parts of the spine. Elasticity, shape, consistency lost of the cartilaginous disc, which causes a reduction in the distance between adjacent vertebrae. The instability leads to compression of the nerve roots due to the narrowing of the holes through which they come out, the back muscles tighten and pain occurs. This is how osteochondrosis appears.
Progressive osteochondrosis shows signs of complications in the form of spinal protrusion and hernia. In the future, intervertebral osteochondrosis leads to degenerative changes in the small joints of the spine, the intervertebral ligaments. Due to the bone growths, the flexibility of the spine is lost, subluxations and curvatures begin to appear. Usually, such processes are characteristic of the physiological aging of the body, but the disease also affects young people. Therefore, the question of what to do with osteochondrosis concerns almost all segments of the population. To do this, you need to find the causes of the disease.
There are many factors that lead to the development of osteochondrosis. The formation of the vascular bed begins in the intervertebral discs, and its nutrition occurs according to the principle of diffusion.It is this factor that prevents regeneration of the disc in cases of excessive stress and injuries. A person often complains of back pain. The causes of osteochondrosis are directly related to the poor lifestyle of people.
- Poor or inappropriate power supply. Not receiving nutrients, the intervertebral discs begin to thin and deform.
- An important cause of osteochondrosis is lack of sufficient physical activity, high body weight, metabolic disorders.
- Musculoskeletal system disorders, worsening posture, flat feet.
- Damage is a very common cause of osteochondrosis. Microtrauma of the spine due to knocks, falls, abnormal and sudden movements, too much stress. Macrotrauma due to fractures, severe bruising.
- Infectious diseases, intoxication.
- Stress, along with smoking, causes vasospasm. Heredity affects the onset of the disease.
- Climatic factor in the form of cold and humidity.
The main causes of osteochondrosis are the disproportionate distribution of the load on the spine, too weak muscle corset. People over the age of 30 are at greatest risk, especially if their job is to sit for a long time. In order to know how to get rid of osteochondrosis, you need to understand the path of its development, the stages of damage to the spine during the disease.
Development of the disease
What causes osteochondrosis?Due to the influence of the above negative factors, the disease begins to progress, going through several stages of development.This:
- In the first stage, intervertebral osteochondrosis begins due to dehydration of the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral discs. Its shape changes and becomes flatter. The distance between the vertebrae is reduced, cracks gradually appear on the cartilage.
- In the second stage, abnormal mobility of the vertebral bodies is observed, they can move and slide. The ligament and muscle apparatus collapses due to small spaces between the discs, motor instability.
- The third stage is characterized by vertebral subluxation, osteoarthritis, extrusion of intervertebral discs.
- Degenerative restoration of the spine begins. Bone spines, osteophytes form between the vertebrae. This is how the body adapts to the artificial state of the spine. Gradually, the number of bone growths increases, and the vertebrae are almost completely immobilized. At this point, surgery may be needed to treat osteochondrosis.
The most commonly used classification is based on the parts involved.
- Lumbar region. The most common variant of the disease. The presented part of the back carries the main load, as a result of which an intervertebral hernia may appear.
- Signs of osteochondrosis of the cervical spine occur due to poor development of the neck muscles. Even a slight load can lead to deformation of the vertebrae.
- The signs of thoracic osteochondrosis do not appear as often as the previous two. This section is the most immobile, in addition, it has protection in the form of ribs and a muscular corset. The resulting osteochondrosis manifests itself as a result of the development of scoliosis.
- The sacred spine carries the bulk of the spine, chest, and abdominal organs. It is more common in women and is characterized by problems with the lower limbs.
- Extensive osteochondrosis symptoms occur in two parts of the spine at the same time.
Symptoms of the disease
Signs of osteochondrosis depend on the location of the pathological process. How osteochondrosis manifests itself is an interesting question.The pain can range from mild to severe and stabbing, even unbearable.Symptoms and treatment are closely linked. The first helps to know how and how to treat osteochondrosis of the back. The main signs of the disease depending on its location:
- Cervical spine problems are characterized by dizziness, blurred vision, severe eye strain. There are pains in the neck, shoulders, arms, head, which are aggravated by turning the neck. The patient notes numbness in the skin of the face, neck and hands. Colored spots may appear in front of the eyes. In addition, there is often loss of consciousness due to circulatory disorders in the cervical spine and symptoms of vertebral artery syndrome.
- Signs of osteochondrosis of the thoracic spine are distinguished by the sensation of "cola" in the chest, when a aching or cutting pain radiates to the heart and lungs. Painful sensations with deep, brisk breathing.
- Symptoms of osteochondrosis of the lumbosacral spine - pain radiates to the groin, sacrum and legs, causing lower limb sensitivity disturbances, muscle aches and numbness. Varicose veins are possible. Localization of the disease in the lumbar region has signs of sexual dysfunction, sometimes causes dysfunction of the pelvic organs. Healing the lower back makes male strength. For women, problems in this area negatively affect the course of pregnancy and menstruation.
Intervertebral osteochondrosis is characterized by a number of common symptoms. Rapid fatigability can appear with stress, both mental and physical. There are "lumbago" in other organs, muscles, the symptoms of osteochondrosis of the back begin to increase. Pain during inflammation increases when sneezing or coughing, bending, rotating the body, head. Chills of upper and lower limbs are felt. Osteochondrosis of the back, which lasts for a long time, practically does not cause pain, but the mobility of the corresponding parts of the spine is lost as a result of the fusion of the affected vertebrae.
Diagnosis and treatment
After discovering the symptoms of osteochondrosis, treatment is prescribed depending on the diagnosis.After examination and questioning of the patient, the treating neurologist announces the preliminary diagnosis. In addition, instrumental diagnostic methods are used: CT - computed tomography, MRI - magnetic resonance imaging, Doppler ultrasound, X-rays, myelography. A thorough examination makes it possible to identify the complications associated with spinal osteochondrosis: hernia, sciatica, protrusion, kyphosis.
Is it possible to cure osteochondrosis?Treating spinal osteochondrosis is a long, step-by-step process. The duration of the course depends on the age of the patient, the severity of osteochondrosis of the spine, the treatment and compliance by the patient with all the recommendations of the doctor.Before fighting the disease, you should familiarize yourself with the main directions of therapy, learn the methods of treating osteochondrosis:
- drugs; physiotherapy
- ; diet
- surgical treatment; spa
As already mentioned, the doctor has to decide how to cure osteochondrosis of the spine. Depending on the severity of the disease, conservative or surgical treatment is used. In particularly severe and neglected cases of the development of the disease, a decision is made about surgical intervention. Basically, the complex treatment of osteochondrosis is used. Medicines and medical technology from different industries are used together.
At the initial stage, effective treatment of osteochondrosis is aimed at eliminating pain. The patient wears special corsets to relieve stress on the spine. Medical treatment and physiotherapy are carried out. The next step is to take steps to prevent exacerbation of spinal osteochondrosis. The most effective methods are used - physiotherapy exercises, massage, reflexology.
Medicines are designed to eliminate pain, inflammation, activate regeneration of cartilage tissue, and improve blood circulation in affected tissues.Main groups of drugs for treatment:
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. NVP relieves pain, relieves inflammation, lowers the temperature of diseased tissue in the spine. If the symptoms are pronounced, injections are prescribed twice a day of drugs such as metamizole sodium, diclofenac, meloxicam. After that, the transition to the types of tablet drugs is carried out: ibuprofen, paracetamol, nimesulide. The entire treatment lasts from ten days to a month. They take funds 1-4 times a day. Ibuprofen, nimesulide, diclofenac sodium creams are also used on the skin of the affected spine.
- Muscle relaxants. Reduces excessive muscle tone by relaxing striated muscle fibers. They are applied within one month. In severe cases, an injectable form of the drug is prescribed - tolperisone hydrochloride. Then tablets are used: tolperisone hydrochloride, baclofen, tizanidine. The regimen begins with small doses, gradually increasing to therapeutic, then decreasing until it is canceled.
- Chondroprotectors. Intended to improve metabolism, regeneration of cartilage tissue in cases of osteochondrosis (chondroitin sulfate). There are injection forms for intramuscular and intra-articular injection. The course of therapy can last up to four months.
There are also additional medicines to speed up the healing process:
- vitamins B1, B2, B6, E are prescribed as injections in the course of ten days, improve conduction of nerve impulses, catalyze tissue repair and speed up metabolism; Angioprotectors
- in the form of tablets of diosmin, dipyridamole, as well as injectable forms of the drug: pentoxifylline, are used to improve blood circulation in the veins, increase vascular tone. The treatment lasts one to three months;
- Glucocorticosteroids reduce swelling and inflammation and enhance the effects of essential drugs. There are injections for injection into muscles or joints, this is methylprednisolone. There are pills such as methylprednisolone. The course of treatment is prescribed by the doctor individually for each patient; Biogenic stimulants
- are used to speed up metabolic processes, help heal damaged tissue. Most commonly used in injectable form: Aloe.
Physiotherapy methods allow to activate healing processes, prolong the stage of remission, prevent the appearance of new exacerbations.The best physiotherapy methods include:
- Exercise therapy is one of the best ways to treat osteochondrosis, which should be used outside the period of exacerbation. A well-developed muscle corset contributes to an even distribution of the load on the spine. Regular exercise improves blood circulation and repairs damage. Breathing exercises relieve muscle spasms and help overcome pain. Joint gymnastics, rehabilitation equipment, swimming relieve stress on the spine;
- massage improves nerve conduction, tones muscles; Reflexology
- . The activation of the body's defenses, the strengthening of the immune system, the relief of spasms and pain is done by acting on certain points of the body using the finest needles; Electrophoresis
- creates muscle relaxation and pain relief effect. Blood flow to diseased tissue is normalized.
In order to cure spinal osteochondrosis, manual therapy, magnetotherapy, spinal traction, laser therapy, heat therapy, mud, shock wave therapy, showers and healing baths are also used.All of these methods dramatically reduce the rate of disease progression. The duration of a course can be up to fifteen days. Three or four repetitions of the course are performed annually. An integrated therapeutic approach makes it possible to get rid of exacerbations of osteochondrosis forever.
I must say that the question is often asked whether osteochondrosis is treated with folk remedies. No, but together with the main treatment they help to relieve the disease, the methods should be agreed with the attending physician. It is possible to treat bothersome areas of the back with infusions and rubbing. To do this, mix a glass of honey and a glass and a half of radish juice. Add one hundred grams of vodka. After stirring, the product should be rubbed well into the diseased area of the spine twice a day.
Another brew is worth making. So, 500 grams of vodka is poured into a glass of lilac flowers. Insist in a tightly closed container for ten days. The filtered medicinal infusion is rubbed into the affected area.
Good nutrition should consist of a sufficient amount of protein, fat and vitamins.It is advisable to exclude rapidly digestible carbohydrates from the diet. The calorie content of food should be between 1500 and 2500 kcal. With an exacerbation of the disease, nutrition must become fractional. It is necessary to eat in this way even after the improvement of the condition of the spine.
Faced with osteochondrosis for the first time, the question should not arise. The first step is to see a doctor who knows everything you need to know about osteochondrosis. Treatment is quite a laborious and long process, accompanied by pain and inactivity of a person. Is it possible to cure osteochondrosis - this question remains open due to the influence of many factors. After getting rid of the acute symptoms, you should continue to take care of your spine. The fight against disease must be constant. A person who conquers bad habits in return acquires a healthy and strong spine.